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The AM signal and how it works. Carrier and modulation
Had a few private messages asking about this and I apologize for my long absence but I've been busy. I have discovered how it works and for the benefit of everyone here and mainly Matt who helped me quite a lot here are some unanswered questions, Matt you were right you do have to prime the system to get the magnetic field.
Any choke whether it be common mode or differential mode choke works on a basic principle. You have two frequencies, a primary frequency you wish to pass through the choke and a secondary frequency you wish to block and that principle is based on Q factors of the coils.
Stan's system is very simple, you prime the two chokes with a low impedance load like any other common mode or differential mode choke system. That load has to be high enough to prime the chokes with thousands of volts trapped in the windings so how does it work? The fuel cell circuit actually passes current (not the tubes themselves) that has a significantly low impedance to create current flow. No choke can EVER work without a primary current flow and that's a fact. Stan Meyer used a resistor in parallel with the cell and it's visible in the pictures, it's about 200 Ohms which is a match of his chokes electrical resistance not their impedance at the carrier frequency. He primes the chokes by running them at a carrier wave frequency and current flows through the resistor like any normal circuit. The chokes are NOT resonant as the carrier frequency, they are resonant at another frequency - the secondary frequency. Any choke system that purges unwanted signals out of a system has to dump those signals to ground through L/C or it burns then up via L/R, in fact some systems use L/C/R together in various ways.
Stan set his mind on L/C but the C wasn't dumped to ground like in normal systems, it was allowed to build on massive caps. The carrier wave primes the chokes into the resistor then Stan introduces a modulation into the fray. The Q factor of the chokes is such that the modulation frequency is at the self resonant frequency of the chokes and those chokes are ringing. If you tune any system based on the Q factor of the chokes then your options are really wide open at that point and you have choices.
But here lies the beauty of this system: During the normal operation of the carrier wave into the resistor, the resistor doesn't actually use high voltage, it uses current and is only voltage rated at it's given ohmic value. The voltage potential in the chokes is 20kv + but the resistor will not in any way recognize that fact, it can only draw voltage based on the Q factor at low impedance and Ohms law. The high voltage potential is actually invisible to the resistor because the high voltage potential is only visible at high impedance!
Stan simply connected his cell to the self resonant frequency of the coils and his positive potential built up on the positive cell because of the diode not allowing a tank circuit to form. Understanding what happens here is not easy by any stretch of the imagination but I'll try to explain it. When the chokes are modulated at their self resonant frequency they will by nature try to form a relationship with ANYTHING connected to them. If it finds that the relationship of a capacitor to be equal in impedance and correct phase it will form a LC or tank circuit with it, if it finds a lower impedance then it will come out of resonance and act just like the carrier wave and induce current. It is all based on WHAT THE CHOKE SEE'S. If there is a diode in the potential tank circuit it cannot take a look in one particular direction only the other but it will take a peek in the direction it can look. In other words it 'pings' it. After it pings it, the normal response is to receive a 'ping' back from another coil or cap and the push pull starts if correct phase and impedance is there. BUT the diode stops the reverse ping and no relationship can be formed at all. Chokes however don't just send one ping, they'll continue to take a peek indefinitely because they have a habit of trying to dump their contents on something else. Stan's system doesn't allow the chokes to understand what they are pinging into, they haven't got a clue because the diode stops reverse pings and the chokes will continue pinging at a very fast rate of knots into a UNKNOWN impedance and phase. It becomes a biased push system and your cell can be any size you like because the chokes can't see them.
So where is everyone going wrong? Basically they are trying to send the modulated frequency into the chokes without the carrier wave and you can't do that. You have to send a carrier wave into a resistive load first then modulate at the resonant frequency of the chokes but timing or phase is also important, the right frequency carrier, it's phase relationship to the parasitic modulations are important so that when you are at resonance the carrier wave cannot interfere with modulations when they ping the cell. This is how it all works my friends and if you don't believe it then build a tiny version of what I've described and you'll see.
Now, the schematic below has another circuit that is totally unnecessary but it is there to explain what the diode does. Q2 driven by the second PWM is totally unnecessary and I've surrounded it in blue. Instead of chopping off the high impedance modulations and stop them entering the 220ohm resister via a diode I've chopped them off with a PWM and Q2, you can see the phase relationship which I've marked. The 220ohm resistor goes exactly where I've placed it on the schematic and the diode does two things, a: it switches between low and high impedance and b: it doesn't allow the cell to ping the chokes and form a tank circuit, instead you end up with the chokes pinging an UNKNOWN impedance indefinitely. The modulation frequencies involved are what ever your chokes are self resonant at and your carrier wave frequency is where the 220ohm resister is happy and enough magnetic field is present in the chokes to provide an high voltage field in them. The beauty of it is that if phased correctly the diode will switch between high and low impedance. The true schematic is also below.
The impedance that the chokes ping into can only be regarded as infinite because there is no response via the diode therefore cell size is totally irrelevant.
The Resistor at R1 presents a very high impedance to the chokes at resonance (modulated frequency) and current cannot pass just like any choke system, the capacitor however is not a dead short like the resistor and cannot complete a circuit and it must rely on a reverse ping to register. The diode stops reverse pings.
There were two signals, we forget to create the first signal and the second signal died before it was born.
Where do chokes get their energy for high impedance state from when they resonate at secondary frequency (mark and space) and carrier is higher frequency but dc due to the diode?
Mark is always dc pulses instead of continuous current flow. Can magnetic field increase under these conditions?
Despite the diode there is ac voltage over the cell. How comes?
Maybe it helps to describe the process as a state machine
The Resister at R1 (lower picture) presents high impedance to the flow of current at the modulation frequency because like any choke on any series system it will not allow current to pass at it's resonant frequency, The capacitor in the water because the gap between the tubes is so large it also presents a high impedance figure and current will not pass through the water. Ask yourself how a tank circuit works or LC circuit? It works because there is no dissipation of energy due to resistance (high impedance). To start the push pull effect of an LC circuit we must always start with a loaded coil and a high resistance to the flow of current which means the frequency of the coil must be met with an equal resistance to the flow of current.
The water fuel cell presents itself as an equal resistance to the flow of current (an high impedance) to the coil and therefore an initial ping of energy (voltage potential) takes place. In a normal LC circuit the capacitor responds by a reverse ping so that the push pull tank circuit will continue but the diode won't allow it. You are left with a situation where the choke is continually trying to create a tank circuit with the fuel cell but the diode won't allow it. This creates a dc bias on the fuel cell because the negative choke isn't allowed to ping the water fuel cell at all because the diode only allows the positive choke to ping the fuel cell.
The reason the chokes are in an high energy state is because they dissipate energy into the resister R1 at the carrier frequency which is low impedance, this energy field is quite substantial which is driving a 220 ohm resistor. When the modulations begin and the chokes begin to resonate at their self resonant frequency the Q factor of the coil changes and the resister R1 becomes high impedance to the flow of current.
The only reason AC is entering the fuel cell on some systems is because there is current flowing through the fuel cell and the diodes ability to stop current in either direction has be compromised. This can only happen if the resister at R1 across the chokes terminals does not present an high enough impedance and the water fuel cell does not present an high enough impedance, Basically your chokes are not self resonant where they need to be where no current can pass through R1 or you have the timing of your modulations so that they become an harmonic of the carrier frequency. They CAN NOT be an harmonic of the carrier frequency!
If your chokes self resonant frequency is in the harmonic range of the carrier frequency they will merge into low impedance and current will pass across the resister and fuel cell.
You must also understand the workings of the carrier frequency and the chokes. The secondary coil works like any other transformer coil and it steps up the voltage via normal coil operation while under load. The high voltage passes through the chokes and the current passes through the chokes at low impedance which means there is only a small magnetic field present in the chokes. However, because the current at R1 at carrier frequency is high then the inductance in the choke winding's is also high even though the magnetic field is low. When the modulator frequency is passed through the choke, there is enough inductance and voltage present because R1 dictates this. R1 can only use current and voltage in accordance to ohms law, inductance fields are also in accordance with ohms law but the inductance field will only expel energy in accordance with the amount of energy that can possibly be consumed. If you have a system that is capable of 500 amps current and you place a light bulb that is 50 amp, the system will only draw 50 amp not push 500 amps through the bulb. In the same way the chokes have low magnetic field at low impedance but inductance is equal to current draw at R1, then if you switch to high impedance where the magnetic field build up is equal to the higher inductance because R1 is redundant.
R1 is voltage rated according to the voltage that the secondary coil is passing of perhaps 400v. The amount of current that the resister uses is related to the Q factor of the chokes and the frequency they allow to pass unhindered plus the current value of the resister in accordance to ohms law at carrier frequency. However, all AC current series circuits try to resist the change of the direction of current (inductance). This means that the wires in the chokes are subject to inductance like any other AC circuit. The amount of inductance is related to current draw at R1 and the Q factor of the choke at the carrier frequency. When the Q factor is low enough, the inductance of the choke itself is low but the inductance of the wire is still subject to the value of R1 at carrier frequency. At modulation frequency the Q factor of the choke changes while there is still inductance in the choke winding's caused by R1 at the carrier frequency but R1 becomes redundant and high resistance to the flow of current at modulation frequency (high impedance) takes over. The choke can no longer pass current either through the resister or the cell. But the phase of the choke spikes the cell and tries to form a tank circuit and keeps spiking it while ever the modulation frequency is causing the choke to be self resonant. When a choke becomes self resonant, they act differently, they try and form tank circuits with everything they touch.
Lets just talk a little about self resonance and Q factor. The more efficient a coil is at forming tank circuits then the longer those tank circuits will last. The resistance of the wires plays a huge roll in this and ultimately super conductors that offer zero resistance will help and technically speaking if there is no resistance in the wire at all and the Q factor of the coil was high enough and the efficiency of the capacitor is high enough then the tank could swing forever. We all know this is impossible and Stan always talks about the efficiency of components as being the only reason we cannot reach infinite voltage. The capacitor components and coil components would all need to be super conductors besides the connecting wires and it would have to be performed in a vacuum. That's not going to happen. If you want an efficient system that can resonate efficiently enough to perform the work that Stan is talking about then you need an high quality factor otherwise the voltages won't get high enough and quick enough. This means the choke wire has to be top quality and it has to have low minimum damping. BUT here is the most important bit, the wire which connects the chokes to the fuel cell - the higher the resistance then the higher the damping within the choke. What does this tell you? It tells you that resistance between the choke and water fuel cell (in de ionized water) is the absolute enemy. Even though the fuel cell may present an high impedance to encourage a tank circuit, the connecting wires are presenting a lower impedance. Lower impedance causes current flow in a system where you are trying to form a tank circuit and throws the system out of resonance. Therefore the connecting wires need to be the same resistance and inductance as the coil material with no impedance spikes anywhere along the way so that the wires are part of the coil. When you wind your chokes let the choke wire extend to the cells but insulate against short circuits. DO NOT increase or decrease the gauge of your wire connecting choke to cell, it will cause standing waves because of an impedance mismatch, the standing waves will reflect the voltage back towards the chokes and burn them out by inducing current.
The water fuel cell is by definition half of an AM transmitter. By that I mean that there is a voltage maxima and capacitance but there is no current maxima and no inductance. A normal AM antenna has voltage maxima and voltage minima, current maxima and current minima, it has an inductance field and a capacitance field. The water fuel cell lacks current and induction therefore it cannot transmit the AM signal. The reason it has voltage is because the chokes cut off the current and induction but allow voltage and capacitance through the same resonant action as any AM transmitter. Every AM transmitter must match the transmission line (coax) impedance and the antenna impedance to the oscillator impedance. Stan's system has to match the oscillator frequency (chokes) to the line frequency (wires from chokes to cell) but not the antenna frequency (water fuel cell). I'll tell you why you don't need to match the water fuel cell. In a normal transmitter, the impedance of the oscillator, transmission line and antenna is usually 50 ohms (not high impedance). The antenna on a 11m 27mhz system is naturally about 1000 ohms on a shunt fed and 75 ohms on a dipole and a matching section is needed which will bring the impedance down to 50 ohms and match it. If you don't do that you get standing waves which will reflect the signal back at the oscillator. If Stan's system operates at 5khz on the modulation frequency which is the resonant frequency of the chokes then the incident wave would be miles in length, the incident wave for 27mhz is 35 feet, as you come down in frequency in the incident wave goes up exponentially and 5khz would present an incident wave of 93600 feet. It doesn't matter if you cut the cell tubes to half waves or quarter waves or 32nd waves you would never get them big enough to tune to resonance and impedance match to 5khz, totally impossible. There is only one way to do it and that is use the negative choke as a impedance match but at less than a quarter wave. That means that the total length of the tubes which are acting similar to a dipole array in series with the negative choke are just under a quarter wave of 93600 feet. A 32nd wave works out at 975 yards total for negative choke and cell in series as in impedance match through a dc ground system. a 64th wave works out at 487 yards for the cell and negative choke. In transmission systems, anything less that a quarter wave is purely capacitive and that's part of the reason the cell takes on voltage. That is why the length of the tubes is not important and why the negative choke is variable in some cases - it's an AM impedance match.
So, in simple terms if you create a positive choke that is self resonant at a modulation frequency of 5khz and the choke is 500 yards of 30 gauge wire, the demodulation would be 5khz and the cell plus the negative choke would be 500 yards long plus a means of fine tuning. Hope people understand now. Those are not true wire length figures BTW just examples.
Now for those of you who want ball park figures, the total electrical resistance of Stan's secondary, L1 and L2 is roughly 220ohms. Have you seen this figure before? What does that tell you about the carrier frequency?
The electrical resistance of L1 is 77 ohms
The electrical resistance of L2 is 70 ohms.
What does this tell you about Stan's tubes? Their electrical resistance including the transmission wire is roughly 7 ohms. What does that tell you about whether they are in series or parallel? If they are in parallel what is the reactance of the system as you switch more sets of tubes on, will it remove the need for L2 to be variable? Those would be the questions I'd be asking myself.
Look at the chart, the resistance figures for L1 go up in frequency but is only 100 oms at 100hz where its resistance is at 1khz is 3.1kohms and 10khz is 1200kohms, what figure is missing from the chart? It's self resonant frequency where the resistance goes off the chart which is 5khz. 10khz is double the resonant frequency. They failed to mark its resonant frequency in the chart, why?
The carrier frequency is close to mains electric which is 50/60hz and the modulations are close to 5khz. I'll tell you what is totally fake on the chart, the secondary, L1 and L2 are closely matched in impedance at 1khz at around 2.5kohm/3kohm yet when we switch to 10khz the secondary is at 190k yet L1 and L2 have jumped to 1200k each, this is totally impossible and the true figures for L1 and L2 are 205k and 170k respectively at 10khz because I've measured them. What did they try to hide? They tried to hide the fact that L1 and L2 are coming into resonance as you approach 5khz. At 5khz L1 and L2 are approaching 10,000kohm and it depletes back down as you approach 10khz again.
In other words the chokes will not pass current at 5khz.
Also the inductance figures on this chart are totally made up, the chart is pure fiction.
I was messaged to explain the am signal, that's what I've done. I've explained how and why the chokes work, they will not work any other way than choking an high impedance modulation from a low impedance carrier, without a carrier signal everyone is wasting their time believe me.
Interesting information, thx Nav!
What difference does it make whether L1-4 are on common core or separate cores?
How about gap or no gap according to tuning/adjustment?
I tried both with air gaps and without air gaps but my air gap principle was wrong, we all make mistakes along the way. You can use chokes on the same transformer or you can use chokes on there own transformer BUT take note of this:- The phase of a choke that is on a separate transformer is different to the phase of a choke that sits on a core with the secondary. Study mutual inductance of multi core transformers to understand this then study the phase of stand alone bifilar chokes and differential mode chokes.
Stan uses bifilar chokes on several of his designs. The bifilar choke will only choke current at its resonant frequency where the Q factor is at it's highest and it will only choke parasitic frequencies that sit on carrier frequencies where the load (resistance) presents an high impedance at the parasitic frequency.
Consider the below low pass filter (picture). Consider what takes place on this circuit. The resistance is at low frequency which is the standard operating frequency (our carrier) and the filter will remove higher frequencies which are unwanted frequencies (our modulation). How does the circuit work and stop the unwanted signal entering the resister? When the choke L1 is resonant at the unwanted frequency it forms a tank circuit with the capacitor and the swing of the tank circuit uses up the unwanted signal via resistive losses between the two components. Sometimes, if the unwanted signal is too powerful for the capacitor there is a shunt to ground from one side of the capacitor.
Build a straight forward circuit consisting of a step up transformer rated at 50/60hz, any normal transformer of 1:20. Connect it to any resister that has a pretty high wattage or light bulb that is rated at 500v and 20 watt. Picture A describes this. Use a variac and transistor rated at 50w and drive the transistor at 50 or 60hz but any type of pulse provider. That is all you need to do in the first part. Get the light bulb shining as bright as it should be or measure the current across the resister. Then introduce a parasite into the AC sign wave, a modulation of 5hz will do but keep the modulation amplitude low at first, watch the amp meter on your resister and increase the modulation amplitude, the light bulb will become dimmer and dimmer as the amplitude of the modulation increases.
This is because your 50/60hz transformer cannot work properly at 5khz, it's becomes inefficient at what its supposed to do, the flux in the core becomes too saturated and the bulb dims then the transformer will become hot. don't do this for too long because you'll burn it out. Increase the modulations so that the light bulb is bright or scope the resister so you can see those modulations across it while maintaining current flow. Now we have a system working with a paracitic signal which we are going to capture elsewhere.
Next step, get used to filtering before you take too big a plunge. Build circuit B. Make L1 resonant at 5Khz exactly and you all know how to do that. C1 is a 5kz crossover cap from any crossover circuit rated for 5khz. D1 is rated higher than current at R1 and L1 is 29 gauge on ferrite core. Before you can run you must first learn how to walk.
Start the variac at low voltage and light the bulb normally with no modulations at first, increase the voltage until its bright and maximum current is passing then start the 5khz modulations on low amplitude. Increase the amplitude gradually and you will notice the bulb is not affected like before. This is because the bulb presented an high impedance to the modulations and they were trapped in the transformer core. L1 and C1 now present a secondary path for the modulation which is shunted to variac ground as an half rectified signal. You cannot shunt elsewhere. If you turn the modulation amplitude up really high, the filter will work only to a certain point before the AC signal is totally ruined. When the system is running properly, place a scope across the resister and the modulations will be gone. This is low pass filtering the easy way.
Now we are going to collect the modulations in an easy way.
Circuit C consists of this :- L1 5khz self resonace, roughly about 80 Ohms resistance, L2 is 80oms same as L1 but is variable. D1 and D2 are same spec as Stan's schematics. The cell is two stainless steel plates 4 inches square 2mm thick and the wires connecting the cell to the chokes are made from extending choke wire. Wrap your chokes slightly too long then unwind enough from them to reach the cell. ONLY use de-ionized water so no current from the carrier can go through the water.
Do's and do not's:- Do not turn on the 50/60hz carrier frequency with the variac at 12v and draw full current into R1. Start at low low voltage and monitor on an amp meter so that the current does not exceed 500mA. Turn it on at 1v and raise the voltage steadily until you reach 400mA. Turn on the modulations at about a quarter of the voltage amplitude the carrier wave has .
The light bulb will dim slightly, Use the variable setting on L2 until the light bulb dims more. Once it dims or the resistor shows less current across it turn the voltage up on the variac slightly and move the variable L2 till it dims again. Keep doing this in small steps until you reach 6 volts. Gas bubbles will appear on the plates and slowly start to rise. Keep doing it until you reach 12 volts and gas is flowing. At this point do not raise the voltage amplitude of the modulation or you'll blow the system, you can only do that with a full set of tubes.
What is happening?
The steel plates and L1 are totally impossible to impedance match. The capacitor is so far out of range of the 5kz L1 that you cannot get a tank circuit to form and filter the voltage just like the low pass filter did. L2 is actually an impedance matching circuit which tunes the plates to L1 impedance, without L2 it cannot work.
Why is the light bulb dimming when it was actually bright in the low pass filter? In the low pass filter system, the primary circuit dominates the inductance field in the choke and it's winding because the capacitor and L1 are shunting the load to Variac ground.
When massive capacitor plates are introduced the modulated frequency causes the system to get voltage hungry and that hunger is so high that it takes the voltage potential from the carrier inductance in the wire itself inside L1. The light is dimming because although there is current available to R1 the voltage potential is removed at an higher frequency than it can handle and voltage at R1 is negligible
. There is no current at the capacitor because it presents too high an impedance for current to flow which is the basic principle of choke systems.
Now here is the good bit. You can actually remove the resister (or light bulb) at R1 and remove D2 if you've learned to walk before you can run. You make the water conductive enough so that current passes through it with just the carrier wave. When you introduce the modulations the same rules apply but there is no way of tuning the circuit visibly. So what you do is place a bulb in parallel with your tube sets.
Always learn to walk before running, understand all the basic principles of chokes and why they work and where the energy goes. Learn how to harness parasitic unwanted energy instead of shunting it to ground and you WILL succeed.
Missed the ground from the primary in picture A, sorry
Resister is 220 to 250 ohms by the way, at 50hz presents low impedance, at 5khz it presents impedance in mega ohms. Fuel cell presents impedance at 5khz in mega ohms, in series with L2 the fuel cell presents an impedance match. When impedance match occurs, L2 is happy to communicate with the fuel cell. No impedance match - no communication. Dc bias builds up on cell because of diode won't allow the pendulum to swing in tank circuit. Hope everyone is beginning to understand.
Also important. If you move to the nine tube set then the impedance of the system will change. The impedance of the tubes will change as you move up in size and the series impedance of tubes and L2 will change. Therefore, when calculating the size of L2 it is important that you do not go outside the range of the variable capacity when in series with the tubes. On 4 inch plates you can get away with it, on tubes that present a parallel equation connected to a series equation the math becomes extremely complicated especially in the light their total length may be 250 inches long in parallel sets connected to a series tuning coil. If you go bifilar it gets even worse because L2 cannot be variable so stay away from those till you understand it more. Once you establish some figures you can eventually do away with variable L2 but if you are down sizing to an injector size fuel cell, variable L2 will need to be reconnected until you find the resonant/none resonant inductance and capacitance of the system at both carrier and modulated frequencies.
... thinking about practicability of LTSpice simulation of your circuits above first ...
You remember this circuit guys which I built? The reason their is no DC bias and not enough voltage is because I didn't run the resistor across the choke and have enough current flowing through it at the carrier frequency. The system was working the way it should have done but there were just a few mistakes related to frequencies, diode type and resister positioning.
1) The carrier frequency is 50-60hz and the modulations are 5khz but your chokes must be self resonant at 5khz,
2) You need a 220ohm resister parallel with the water fuel cell.
3) L2 + the cell combined must have the same impedance as L1 at 5khz to match impedance
4) You must extend the same wire the chokes are made from with no soldering to the cell,
This is a Open Source CC from NAV
First of all I want to thank the folks that followed me and supported me through the past 12 months in all the work i've been doing concerning this. Its been one hell of a journey.
Recently I started to test bucking coil outputs through self made generators and I am so glad that i'm poor at winding coils because it was that fact that led me to discovering how Meyers VIC works and just like Edward Leedskalnin says 'its more simple than you think'.
When I first watched Meyers vids years ago I was interested in the fact he said one of his resonant charging chokes was in opposition to the other in cancelling current and i was convinced it was something to do with the flux in the core and i've been pondering and thinking out loud on here ever since. I have posted some rubbish aswell as some interesting stuff but thats the way I am, I try to provoke thought in others by thinking out loud.
The last few months I've been studying Edward Leedskalnin and what he had to say and I found several things that related to Stan Meyer especially when I watched video's by our good friend Angus on You Tube. So I decided to build Angus's set up but carefully monitor the results on a scope and on meters.
video is interesting. I had the same results in the current draw. 320 milliamps with the coils in conventional pattern and 200 milliamps with the coils shorted bucking style.
He gets it wrong about the direction of the magmetic flux flow though. The flux from the magnetic field at the magnets does not flow from North to one coil and then from south to the other coil. The flux flow is circular around the u shaped core at C minus resistance or velocity factor.
The flux flows from south magnet around the core to the north magnet or vice versa. It is interesting how two extremely large coils are only wired into two dc motors that only take a few volts to drive, he didn't show us the ac voltage coming out of the coils at all.
An interesting experiment what I did is to short the coils bucking style and then instead of driving magnets through the coils you pulse 12vdc from a PWM into them so that the core becomes an electromagnet. You find out because the coils are wound opposite on each side it actually cancels the magnetic field completely and the core is not magnetic. This is inverse of what happens when you push magnets through and create a generator. So we know that the motor effect of Lens law is definately cancelled when it runs as a generator and thats why it speeds up. The push pull is slightly biased positive.
What the guy doesn't tell you is when you try to use the ac directly from the coils it sort of cancels out and very little is usable. The dc side of it seems to be more usable.
Take a look at the picture I attached. Figure 1 shows the magnet between the core. The magnetic flux cannot be stopped from the magnets when the inductors are at charge stage. The flux is a circular pattern through the magnet and around the core just like in a transformer which I have marked as green. When the magnet is removed the inductors collapse into voltage but because of the left to right rule they collapse in the opposite direction north to north and south to south.
This cancels the motor effect and is why the gen speeds up, the motor rather than being an opposition to the gen it becomes a slight positive forward bias and helps it. In other words the motor effect no longer tries to pull the gen back but becomes a slight push. This produces a cancelled signwave as marked at the end of the blue shorted wires. In figure 2, we put a 12vdc pulse into the coils. When the PWM voltage is at + on the duty cycle the coils are being charged and when it drops to minus on the duty cycle to coils collapse into voltage but again they are collapsing at the left to right rule and collapse in a cancellation pattern. That pattern causes a two norths at the top of the core and two souths at the bottom cancelling the magnetic field.
The reason Lens law is cancelled on this system is because when ever the coils collapse they follow the left to right rule and oppose each other, this cancels the magnetic field in the core so the motor effect doesn't effect the generator in a push pull scenario. But the problem is that the ac voltage isn't much use under load, it seems to disappear when a resistive load of any higher value is added.
Now, this information is very, very important when you consider what Stan Meyer is doing. In stan's schematic figured below we see the two inductors wound bucking style. Here is a fact: the choke marked 56 cannot collapse the way nature and the left to right rule intends it to do so because of the diode marked 55 and the open circuit at the cap at B+(71). But the other choke marked 62 can collapse in its natural way.
When the two chokes collapse into voltage simulataneously they produde opposing magnetic fields and the way back to the secondary coil marked 52 is blocked because the flux flow is cancelled in both directions. Therefore no back emf can get back to the secondary (52) through the core. The natural way back emf gets back to the secondary through the wire is also blocked via the diode.
So here is the conclusion I have formed through my experiments which translates into Meyers schematic:
When the induction of the secondary (52) collapses into voltage it creates induction in the two chokes (56&62) via the core of the transformer. When those two respective chokes collapse into voltage the magnetic field they each produce is opposite cancelling any flux movement in the core and restricting back emf in the core back to the secondary. That fact I have proven. Those two chokes have to collapse because of the change in current to them but because of cancellation the voltage isn't usable and in Meyer's schematic it would cause the cap terminals (71&61) to be either both positive or negative. Stan gets around that by using a diode so that he gets a positive and a negative at the cap. But there is still a cancellation problem because the chokes are naturally acting as a diode against each other anyway so what is the answer?
The answer lies in the choke numbered 62 which is variable. I have proven this fact too that I am about to tell you: if you make choke 62 slightly stronger than choke 56 by a factor of 5%, the magnetic flux flow is still cancelled in the core and back emf is restricted - but you have created a bias in the flow of the diode with extra voltage. It is this extra voltage that creates a potential at B+ and B- because caps just can't help themselves.
Now in the case of Angus, if he wants to collect energy from the coils that are wound bucking style he has to do the same. If you look at the drawing to the right of Stan's schematic you will see the magnet between the coil. The magnet is the exact same as the secondary coil in Stan's schematic - it provides power in the form of flux. the flux induces the two coils and when the magnet is removed there is a change in current and the inductors collapse into voltage. Again the voltage is cancelled because of the laws of nature and the flux flow is cancelled in the core. But because the coil on the right is slightly more powerful it creates voltage on C1 without interupting the flux cancellation and the diode keeps it directional.
So in essence, if we create a 95% cancellation which shuts down the flux flow we can still steal the remaining 5% of power from one coil without the magnet noticing and Lens law is cancelled. I think Henderson gens are doing the same as well as other gens.
ONE OF THE COILS IS A SACRIFICIAL LAMB.
Firstly, I replicated Angus's experiment and found there was huge cancellations which rendered the ac voltage unusable. I was switching magnetic fields the same as he was and it does produce kind of an hybrid wave form thats bordering dc but that turned out not to be important in the end.
What was important was the fact I could cancel Len's law in a generator, even though the voltage was unusable - it was a start. Angus bless his soul is trying to use the voltage but he can't because he's too good at winding coils! Anyway a friend of mine noticed a bias in a few video's I made to show him, one of my coils was stronger than the other. In the days that followed I reversed the experiment so that I got rid of the magnets and pulsed 12vdc into the coils that were still wired in the bucking config. The result was an electromagnet that was very, very weak but only on one leg of the u shaped core - like a monopole magnet. This actually happened because one of the coils was stronger than the other and we didn't quite have cancellation, one of the coils was dominant and the other pole of the magnet was probably inside the coil somewhere but wasn't allowed to emmerge because of the cancellation coming from the other coil. So, the magnetic field was cancelled in the inverse experiment except because of the fact I can't wind coils very well and had a bias in the form of a weak field on one core leg.
Thats when it hit me, I took a look at Stan's schematic (for the 600th time probably) and thought 'what if Stan cancels the magnetic flux like Angus did but with a bias'?
So I soldered a diode in Angus's experiment just like Stan has it in his schematic which I have drawn below in an attachment. The other two leads went to my 2000v cap I got from a MO. I also monitored it all on the scope at the same time.
I'll tell you what Stan is doing in the below schematic. He's winding two inductors opposite windings, that means one is wound right to left and one left to right. Those two inductors cancel the magnetic field just like Angus does on You tube, they also cancel the voltage. But.......Stan wires one inductor so that it is more powerful than the other so there is a voltage bias in the direction of the diode. The magnetic field is still cancelled and the flux flow back to the secondary is blocked but the bias that one coil has over the other is enough to charge a cap without interfering with the cancellation of the flux flow. He has one coil cancelling around 95% of the other coil but the 5% left over is enough to charge a cap without destroying the flux cancellation. Its absolutely beautiful.
Thats why Edward Leedskalnin said it was much simpler than people think. Stan makes his inductor variable so that he can tune it to be biased without destroying the flux cancellation. The guys a genious.
In my drawing L1 is variable so it is more powerful than L2 and C1 collects the bias without the system cancelling the flux blocking. The diode keeps the voltage in the desired direction. Absolute genius. These guys were clever and I'm so glad i'm crap at winding coils.
OK, I wound 2 coils 500 turns of 28 gauge enamelled copper wire. One was wound left to right and the other right to left. The length of the coils is 2 inches and the diameter once wound is three quarters of an inch. I placed the coils on a soft iron U shaped core approx 5 inches long with 8mm bar. The coils were glued in place close to the U bend. I then built a stator out of a remote control car gearbox with a shaft onto a cd where I could place neodimium magnets in any configuration I liked by placing one magnet on one side of the cd and another on the other side so they held themselves in place magnetically. I then ran the cd through the gap in the iron core by pulsing dc into the motor that ran the gearbox. The wheel went around at 2.5hz. I then shorted the two coils out bucking style which means the two wires of each coil are shorted in parallel. This produced a ac cancellation signwave on the scope and ac voltage. It turned out that the motor effect and Lens law was neutralized The voltage is unusable though because of the cancellation. I then placed a diode between one short and left the other two not shorted but directly connected to a cap. Because one of my coils has a different inductance to the other, there is a 95% cancellation in the coils enough to keep Lens law at bay by stopping the flux flow in the core. The remaining 5% though charges the cap. So you create a generator that cancels itself out and cancels lensing but has a little left over to charge a cap.
You can do the same set up in a transformer like Meyer does. If you wind your coils so that each one is capable of perhaps 2000 volts each and you make one variable then you can create the same bias. So on each pulse the cancellation is perhaps 90% (you can play with the variable inductor to see how far you can take it without re-introducing back emf) then you will have 200 volts of lens free energy. The magnetic field in the stator is one directional by the way. I do have vids i've been making as I went along but they are not presentable. I will make a video showing all soon.
interesting find Nav.
thanks for sharing.
i do have some questions tho.
one of them is that if you have 95% cancellation and 5% usable energy... do we still see the increase in rotor RPM?
we know that then there 100% canceled we see an increase in rotor RPM.
I'm just wondering if we get 5% less rotor rpm increase when shorted in your setup.
yeah, a video demo is always good :)
I think it works like this: When the cancellation is perfect, the negative motor effect on the generator is neutral. In other words there is no energy spent at all therefore there can be neither a positive nor negative motor effect on the gen and the drive motor of the gen will see no load nor positive push (speed up). When a bias is created on one coil it turns into a positive motor effect within the gen itself, this will in turn speed the drive motor of the gen up and also create useable energy left over while still cancelling Lensing and blocking back EMF in the gen.
This has massive implications because if we cancel Lens law and only have as low a 1% energy left over to spend out of those coils, we can wind high voltage coils and have any number of coils running on any system. If you create HT coils of 30,000v then 1% of that is just immence and it can never radiate backward through the system and count as load. Also when you look at Ohms law and what the implications are there when we turn that voltage into current its just mind boggling.
This is a winner - I can assure you.
Bombshell (just saying) something we've all missed.
« 43 hours ago »Last edited 43 hours ago
Been messing with bifilars recently on a small toroid for restricting current, mainly for proof of concept, had some success but usually the voltage is lost through resistance before you can charge a small capacitor or get any bubbles in a small WFC.
Been reading Stan's patents, went through a few schematics convinced we've all missed something because we've all built cells and either get no voltage on them or a sudden in rush of current.
Now at this point you'll be saying 'yeah yeah heard it all before' but please read on because i'm going to open your eyes. I've got some rather interesting news and I promise some rather large pennies will drop: The most popular VIC which everyone is copying, the one with the secondary with blue tape, the primary with yellow tape and the two chokes in red tape, remember that one? Well you've all been wiring it wrong and thats why no ones cell will work.
BOTH THE CHOKES ARE BIFILAR and I can prove it both in concept and in theory. Not only that I can show you exactly what the 220 Ohm resistor does and why it does it. This morning I created a VIC with a primary, a secondary and two bifilars on the same core, See below pics for the scchematic:
You end up with two positives at one end and two negatives at the other and the current runs in one direction only during the callapse of the magnetic field. Both of Stans chokes are wired in this way and on L1 both wires are positive, one of them goes to the water fuel cell and the other is wired to the secondary but the diode biases the voltage in favour of the secondary and stops two current fields meeting head on. At the other end of L1 there is a 220 Ohm resistor and we'll talk about that later.
L2 has two negatives on show, one goes to the cell and the other goes to the negative from the secondary as per schematic. What happens is the secondary, L1 and L2 try to collapse their magnetic fields because of the pressure applied on them by the WFC, The water fuel cell has immediate access to voltage from a natural positive from L1 bifilar and a natural negative from L2 bifilar and tries to draw current from both coils. But here is where the magic happens, the secondary is also trying to collapse its magnetic field in the direction of the diode and the resistor R1 but it can't because the residual current in L1 is trying to go in the direction of the WFC and its own magnetic field dictates that current can only flow in one direction not two. Now look at L2, you've got the secondary pulling on the current from it as well as the WFC but the other end of the L2 bifilar is shorted so that a bidirectional current can only occur which goes against the unipolar field.
What you have with the bifilar's is a unipolar magnetic field trying to be bi-directional, its the WFC in one direction verses the resistor in the other direction and the current is locked but you still have a natural positive and natural negative potential on the WFC.
About the resistor, it is the value of all three coils, L1 and L2 and the secondary because it has to be. If you are removing any residual current from the series circuit and causing a current lock then for impedance reasons it has to be value of the coils in series.
So what heppens when you put this into practise? As you approach resonance of the chokes the voltage potential rises by a massive amount compared to before with the single bifilar and the current is still 100mA but now I can charge caps at a very quick rate indeedy, the resistor removes any residual current from the series circuit even though its the wrong value for my smaller set up. Bubbles you ask? On my smaller twin plate cell there's plenty of bubbles.
Next step, i'm rewiring my chokes on my full set up so they are both bifilar and i'm going in full steam ahead.
Bucking coils. Smart thinking there nav. Very good chance of you finding "a preferred embodiment".
====================Hi Matt, not quite buckling coils. Both the bifilars are wound in the same direction same as Stans schematic. Look through Stan's writings and there is a never ending amount of data about bifilar coils and a lot of schematics with them included yet we see very little of them in the estate pictures. It kept bothering me why stan kept saying in lectures that his chokes magnetic fields oppose the movement of current but yet all those schematics and estate pictures show hardly any means of doing so without it being bifilar. There is only one method of using a magnetic field to oppose current and that is to run a bi-directional current through a unipolar magnetic field and the only way you can do that is a bifilar positive choke and a bifilar negative choke.
Mark my words, its a step in the right direction.
The choke coils what you have shown are bifilar and are connected as none inductive coils.
Stan mentions a bifilar choke L1,L2 (two wires) equal in length on a core leg to get equal impedance. Design used for the Injector.
The C-core 5 coiler VIC has them placed separately.
The LOAD should be included in the transformer matching. Did you do this?
I believe this is not the case. nav
Excellent stuff, Nav